We studied so far the 1st accounting cycle of a firm.
We used, for illustration, a shop buying and selling goods without manufacturing transformation. (See also a digression on the prices of goods and services.)
It was the first year of its life.
There is one specificity of the first year: at the beginning, all the accounts of the ledger are empty.
During the 1st cycle, we posted all the normal transactions into accounts.
Some accounts are called "Revenue accounts". They are the Sales and the yearly Expenditures to operate the firm.
Some accounts are called "Capital accounts". They are the Assets and the Liabilities.
At the end, we made some "adjustments" in order, in the Income Statement, to have exactly the charges of the year to produce the sales.
This is done via entries in extra revenue accounts (to which I added the suffix IS) and extra capital accounts (suffix BS).
For instance, an adjustment for prepayment consists in decreasing a charge (when a part of it concerns only next year) by passing a credit in an account called "adjustment for prepayment IS", or simply in the account of the charge itself, and recording a debit in an account called "adjustment for prepayment BS" (or simply "prepayments"), which corresponds to an extra temporary asset.
All the revenue accounts balances form the Income Statement. And all the other accounts balances, to which we add the balance of the IS, form the Balance Sheet.
The opening stock in the 1st accounting cycle was of course nil.
Then at the end of the cycle:
Now comes the 2nd cycle:
A closer look at Stocks: the closing stock (BS) of the year before, becomes the opening stock (IS) of the new cycle.
A closer look at Amortization:
For this reason, the usual name of the account amortization (BS) is simply "cumulated amortization".
(The suffixes IS and BS are not standard in accounting. I use them only for clarification purposes.)
End of the 2nd cycle:
We extract the IS of the 2nd cycle from the second TB. Then, in this TB, we replace, as we already did, all the revenue accounts with just the bottom line of the IS.
The IS of the 2nd cycle has the usual look:
Notice however that now we have a figure for opening stocks.
And we end up with the BS at the end of the 2nd cycle, which has the following look:
Observe the "Σ amort." (another name for "cumulated amortization") on the asset side, credit column.
And observe the "Σ P&L" on the liability side, which may be in debit (losses) or credit (profits) depending on how well the firm performed. We shall see later that another name for it is "Σ retained earnings".